Role of a Screenwriter in Film Making

To take either a pre-written story, or even a native story idea, and translate it into an effective screenplay is the primary role of a Screenwriter in the Film industry. Having said that, there is much more to this process than meets the eye. It is not as straightforward as writing a normal story, for the simple reason that the communication is audio-visual, and not literary.

There are some very important aspects that need to be carefully observed. Some of these aspects may be generic to good story-writing such as character development, believable characters, story and engaging plot points, regardless of the story-telling medium.

But besides these elements, there are aspects specific to Film medium that need to be kept in mind. Things such as minimal dialogues, visually communicating a certain emotion, a sound sense of the visual medium itself, are vital elements in the screenwriter’s repertoire.

And therefore, a Screenwriter’s role in the overall Film-making process is absolutely vital. Because it is in the screenplay that the Film is first born. And once the screenplay is ready, it is the single most important document that forms the basis on which everyone else (the Director, Actors etc.) builds the Film.

This extremely sensitive and complex function can only be executed by someone who is creative, has a complete understanding of the Film-making process and whose sense of aesthetic is firmly placed in the visual medium. It is a discipline that can be self-taught. But it could take years before one learns the skill set effectively and gets a real opportunity to write a screenplay that is Produced and made into a Film. In essence, how to plant a story from the germ of an idea, or a piece of news, to capture the audience in a total way is a skill that can be learnt from mentors, and practice sessions.

The best solution to all aspiring Film writers is to train themselves thoroughly in the best manner possible. India too has a world-class Film school where creative young minds, who have a burning desire to make it in Films, can learn & receive a superb education. Digital Academy – The Film School is the ideal place to take a Screenwriter’s program and hone one’s writing skills. Not only will there be an opportunity to learn all the nuances of effective Film-writing from leading industry writers, but also a chance of subsequently working in the industry and making Films on the stories you write.

Script is the first part of your Films’ success and by enrolling for a program at DA and see where the world of writing can really take you.

What happened to the Villains?

Stars should be dead, leaving the world lightless and pointless in the 21st Century, according to stardom theorist Richard Dyer. However, in Bollywood, we are experiencing a phenomenon of a different kind. The villains are dying.

Gone are the days when cinema was larger than life, shocking the audience at every turn by the larger than life villain, be it a comic book Mogambo in Mr. India (1987), a rough edged Gabbar Sing in Sholay (1975) or a psychopath Gokul Pandit in Dushman (1998). The bad men in post-2000 Bollywood are vanishing out from the silver screen. The question is, why is this happening?

If we think, the slow erasure of stardom and the death of the villain are connected. The audience is composed of common working people from all stratas of the society. Whatever the differences between two individuals may be, the common man is always driven by a typical quest regarding existence. He wants to know how anything in society is made, how making is organized and understood, and what their own relation to making is.

The complex ways in which we make an explanation of the world around us involves the ways in which we separate ourselves into public and private persons, into producer and consumer. And we always make sense of the world in terms of contrasts and differences. We cannot realize the good unless we know the bad. So, good and bad define one another for us. Which one is accepted as morally or legally good and which one bad depends on the nature of our society, our position in the power hierarchy and our education.

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Dividing all choices into black and white is known as binary opposition to social theorists and practitioners. This works fine when the society is going through a troubled or a developing phase, when the logic of we and they is functional, when the enemy is defined and is at sight. For Hollywood, the enemy was the erstwhile USSR, during the cold war.

In India, the enemy was rarely named. But he was there, both inside the border and outside. In the days of nation building, after Independence, the enemies were shown in general categories, like the black marketer, the gambler, the conning middleman or the usurper in the city and the land-owning zamindar in the village. The gullible hero of the ‘50s Bollywood, Raj (as he was known in many of his films), in Raj Kapoor’s movies, who is from the village and comes to the city, is shocked at its corruption. City bred marginal heroes, played by Dev Anand, knows corruption like the back of his hand (eg, Kala Bazaar, 1960) and even the tragic hero played by Dilip Kumar; all of them were defined sharply in contrast with dark opposing characters. By being a counter-force to the enemy of the common man, the hero was recognized by the mass of viewers who thronged cinema halls after a murky day of work and survival.

Villains were needed to implant dreams in the spectator. The dreams were the goals, the hero was the active virtual agent through which the spectator would reach the goals and the villain was the necessary barrier, who blocked the hero from reaching the goal. The pattern was epic in structure, as the ultimate goal was always connected to nation building in the post-independence era. The Indian mind accepted it and related it to real life sentiments.

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The situation changed in late ‘60s and early ‘70s. The neighbouring enemy was specifically named after wars with China and Pakistan. Also, the inside enemy was spotted and shown more precisely before and during emergency period. However, the villain became more of a personal, than a social villain, during emergency and since. During the Angry Young Man’s rule in Bollywood, be it Amitabh Bachchan, Vinod Khanna or another less successful actor, the villains were much more flesh and blood and less metaphoric. Those films were driven by a spirit of family vengeance. With rising figures in unemployment, uncertainty at work and a nation caught up in unstable politics (Congress was successfully challenged and thrown out of power for the first time after independence in 1977), more personal stories were required for the dreams on the silver screen.

Even after Congress came back in 1980, the scenario remained more or less the same, until it changed for a return of the lovers in the later half of the ‘80s. The villain was still a personal one. But he was not only a professional bad man like those played by Ajit, Prem Chopra or Amjad Khan, but someone like Gulshan Grover or Shakti Kapoor, who is also interested in the heroine. Facing these villians was less vengeance and more of a challenge. A good example of such a villain is Shekhar Malhotra (Deepak Tijori) in Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar (1992). However, the old traits did not vanish. The cinema villain matured.

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Two new types of villains appeared in Hindi Cinema at the turn of the decade. The first was the cold blooded villain played by Nana Patekar as Anna Seth (Parinda, 1989); the other was the two-faced hero of Baazigar (1993), Shahrukh Khan. While the first type got worked, reworked and mixed with the second one in films like Krantiveer (1994) or Satya (1998), to become a stereotype in the end, and to gradually evaporate, the second one slowly became the norm.

Today’s films are less of an epic and closer to reality. Today’s youth knows how a society runs. Moral values have changed with a feel good economy, after India opened a large section of its market to the world. The concept of black and white villains and heroes are dated. In today’s list of coterie movies, the ambivalence is more prominent. The Badmaash Company (2010) hero Karan (Shahid Kapoor) or Delhi Belly’s (2011) hero Tashi (Imran Khan) could not be considered good even by the standard of ‘90s in Bollywood. They are considered normal. Cheat the cheaters is their motto.

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When the whole world has become a competition, and the best cheater gets the crown, how can a good hero be pitted against a dark villain? Such villains do not exist anymore, as the heroes have changed themselves. Today’s society does not need such villains because it has dispensed the idea of such heroes. Today’s society lacks a hero, a model figure in the classical sense. Hence, it is only normal that it should lack the contrasting figure of the villain too. Gone are the days when the bloodthirsty Gulshan Grovers romped the screen!

Career in Film Making

It is now common knowledge that the audio-visual medium is the fastest growing medium of communication in the world. Films are made not only in the fiction format but also as documentaries, training films, corporate films, advertisements and video art. The world of films is like a mushroom cloud that keeps getting bigger and bigger.

Every Film must have a Director with a complete knowledge of Film Making. It stands to reason therefore that higher the number of films, higher will be the demand for directors. A Film Maker is an artist-technician who is also an expert manager, logistics person, coordinator and chief executive officer- all rolled into one. A Film Maker is like a master puppeteer who holds all the strings and makes illusions look like reality. It is a difficult job that requires tremendous creative energy, enthusiasm along with loads of patience and humility. A career in Film Direction is one of extreme creative satisfaction, apart from side benefits of fame and money. But only those who are ready to go through the grind and put in hard labour as well as application can succeed.

Most students of Digital Academy join the industry initially as Assistant Directors and work their way up towards the Directors post. But there is no hard and fast rule about this and if you have the capability you might well straightaway become a Director as soon as you pass out from Digital Academy-The Film School.

While careers of Film Makers are the same as Film Directors it is our analysis that Film Makers who have a complete knowledge of Film Making are generally more in-demand and sought after.

Careers in Production Design

In this corporate era the scope for production design is truly enormous. Though it is always advisable to spend a certain period as an associate with an expert professional to gain practical experiences before joining the industry as a whole-timer, still it takes comparatively lesser time to gain a foothold in this profession.


Beside the usual domain of feature films, TV serials, ad films and music videos, nowadays the events like talk shows, game shows or reality shows in TV industry have consequently opened up newer horizons to explore for the production designers. Probably the time is not very far when the TV channels will start vying with each other for a better production designer to obtain the cutting edge regarding the look in their programs.

It has became already a reality readily accepted in the corporate world that events like product launching, award show or theme parties cannot take place without proper involvements from the production designers. These days, because of their visual acumen, even in the diverse fields like constructing theme parks, put up pavilions or creating theme-based décor in hotel interiors, production designers are a much sought after lot.

Career as a Producer

One does not need to possess a lot of money in order to become a Producer. A producer arranges for the money just as s/he arranges for all the other resources that go into a film. With the growth of corporate film production, opportunities abound for skilled Producers to work as representatives and executives of the larger corporation.

Starting as production assistants, aspiring producers make their way up the corporate hierarchy as line producers, project managers, production heads and finally as producer.

Students from Digital Academy may be able to directly join as line producers or executive producers simply because of the theoretical and practical knowledge they have gained during the course.

An added benefit of this course is that it is like a semi-management course and enables students to branch out in areas like event management, advertisment production or any other area of management.

In short having obtained an insiders view of this course, a student is ready to take on the mantle of a Producer, Executive Producer or Line Producer on any TV channel or production house. 

Careers in Sound Recording & Engineering Course

India is known to be the biggest producer of motion pictures in the world. The biggest USP of Indian Films that sets it apart from World Cinema is the inclusion of song and dance sequences in them. Despite a weak content, several Films have done stupendous business, solely on the strength of its music. Music sales are a major avenue of income for Film Producers and the sale of Audio rights is a major revenue earner. The Audio companies also actively participate in the promotional and marketing strategies of these films.

According to his aptitude or liking, a person can mould or fit himself in various branches of Sound Recording and Engineering:-

1. Sound Engineer for live shoot during Filming of a Movie or a Television programme.
2. Song and Music Recording.
3. Mixing Engineer for Dolby DTS Surround sound.
4. Handling Sound System in live outdoor events.
5. Sound Designing for Film effects.
6. Recordist at a Radio Station, especially FM Stations or to produce software for broadcasting, eg. Ad-commercials, Corporate Documentary films etc.
7. Maintenance or Service Engineer for equipment.
8. Designing and establishing sound Recording Studios with proper aesthetics, acoustics and ambience.

Sound Engineering is not a profession that can be taught in a conventional academic way. It is a collaborative art form and to do it well requires a combination of technical skill and theoretical knowledge, as well as practical and aesthetic abilities.

Careers in Film and Television Editing

India makes the maximum number of films in the world. In addition to this, there are some 30 prominent channels, along with many regional networks. The Indian Media & Entertainment Industry is inviting great investment and has tremendous growth potential. Today, the number of aspirants who wish to make a career in films and the television sector, especially in the field of editing, is at an all time high. The scope of editing is ever widening in this era of technological explosion because every piece of audio visual media, requires an Editor.

Editing is a crucial job, which goes far beyond matching visuals and sound in accordance with the script. A good Editor can make the critical difference to a program’s final quality.

An Editor is therefore both an artist and a technician. As a technician, s/he needs to be abreast of the state of the art technology, which keeps moving towards higher levels of sophistication. At Digital Academy-The Film School, we not only ensure a hands-on experience with state of the art software, but also prepare students for the possible changes of technology in the future for e.g. the shift of Standard Definition Television (SDTV), to High Definition Television (HDTV) or the change of celluloid based technologies to Digital projection technology, be it 2K, 4K or higher.

 

What we aim for is to impart an education that grounds the student’s minds in the unchanging principles that govern narrative communication, while also preparing them for the ever changing flux of technology.

With greater responsibility comes greater visibility and better money. Today’s Editor’s can expect to earn top of the line remuneration especially in the high end spectrum.


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